ERIC WEINER: It was the summer of 1988. Ronald Reagan was president. The L.A. Dodgers were on their way to an unexpected World Series victory, and a prophetic song by George Michael rose to the top of the charts.
Absolom was touted as one of the BBC's rising stars due to his stint in EastEnders. Viewers were reportedly shocked and angered when the character was wrongly imprisoned for murder in 1999. Several newspapers began a campaign to free Matthew, who was dubbed the Walford One by the popular press. During Matthew's time in prison, Absolom received what he described as zany fanmail such as chocolate \"from people who thought it would sustain me in jail\" and an audio-taped copy of the episode in which Saskia was murdered by Steve \"So I could show it to the police and clear my name\".
To further investigate coupling in terms of complexity matching, we wanted to compare 1/f noise in key-presses with other fluctuations in physiological activity that either were or were not responsive to the metronome. For the former, we presented a flash of light with each auditory beat of the metronome, and measured fluctuations in the pupil dilation response across audiovisual beats of the metronome. In the synchronization condition, pupil and key-press responses occurred to the same stimuli, and roughly at the same time. If this co-occurrence leads to coordination between the neural and physiological systems underlying key-press and pupil responses, then we should observe coupling in their 1/f noise signals. However, reflexive pupil dilation is coordinated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS), whereas learned motor responses are coordinated by the central nervous system (CNS). These two physiological systems may not measurably be coupled when the body is at rest, as it is while sitting quietly during a tapping task.
Max Berry began his career with the NBC Development Lab in 1951. He worked for RCA between 1955 and 1965 and then joined ABC for the rest of his career, retiring as Vice President of Broadcast Engineering for Capital Cities/ABC in 1989. He supervised projects at ABC that included the first color slow-motion recorder (with Ampex), a wireless, handheld color camera (with Ampex), a solid-state audio/video routing switcher (with the Grass Valley Group), inter-connection of a main frame computer with an on-air character generator, a multi-color character generator and real time animation (with Dubner Computer), the interface of graphics to sports scoreboard computer systems, the first system to enter news election service reports directly into a character generator system via computer control and supervision of design and construction of over $300 million radio and television facilities through the ABC portfolio..
E. Glynn Walden started his long radio career as chief engineer for WCMQ in Miami in 1975, moved to KYW in Philadelphia in 1981, joined Westinghouse Broadcasting in 1991, and then iBiquity Digital in 1996 and Infinity Broadcasting in 2003, where he was Vice President of Engineering. Along with Paul Donahue from Gannett Radio and Tony Masiello from CBS Radio, he helped establish Project Acorn in 1989 to develop the concept of transmitting digital audio in the existing AM and FM bands. In 1991 he helped found USA Digital Radio, which later merged with Lucent Digital Radio in 2000 to form iBiquity Digital. As Vice President of Broadcast Engineering for iBiquity Digital Corporation from 1997 to 2004, he led the design team that wrote the In-Band/On-Channel (IBOC) technical and regulatory specifications that eventually became the HD Radio system. He developed the transition plan that allowed broadcasters to move to digital broadcasting with minimal disruption to broadcasters and listeners, managed a comprehensive study of interference by IBOC signals, developed a test program for IBOC evaluation by the National Radio Systems Committee, and conducted numerous tutorials, demonstrations and lectures on IBOC technology, leading to the FCC approval of IBOC.
Merrill Weiss, an internationally recognized industry leader and expert in the development of new television technologies. began his career in 1967 at KYW in Philadelphia. He joined KPIX-TV in 1978 and became Engineering Manager and subsequently joined NBC in 1985 and rose to Managing Director, Advanced Television Systems. He formed his consultancy, Merrill Weiss Group, in 1991. While at KPIX, he conducted the experiments that led to the first digital television standard (CCIR Recommendation 601) in 1981 and was involved in the development of virtually every DTV standard since. He was a major contributor to the work of the FCC Advisory Committee on Advanced Television Service (ACATS), especially on implementation matters and participated extensively in both the technical and economic analyses of the various system proposals. He also was active in the work of the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) and invented the method standardized for synchronization of multiple DTV transmitters.
The effectiveness of telehealth was judged by clinicians as equivalent to or better than a home visit on 192 (71.6%, 192/268) occasions, and clinicians rated the experience of conducting a telehealth session compared with a home visit as equivalent or better in 90.3% (489/540) of the sessions. It was found that the quality of video conferencing when using a third generation mobile data service (3G) in comparison to broadband fiber-based services was concerning as 23.5% (220/936) of the calls failed during the telehealth sessions. The experimental field tests indicated that video conferencing audio and video quality was worse when using mobile data services compared with fiber to the home services. As well, statistically significant associations were found between audio/video quality and patient comfort with the technology as well as the clinician ratings for effectiveness of telehealth.
These results showed that the quality of video conferencing when using 3G-based mobile data services instead of broadband fiber-based services was less due to failed calls, audio/ video jitter, and video pixilation during the telehealth sessions. Nevertheless, clinicians felt able to deliver effective services to patients at home using 3G-based mobile data services.
Clinical users felt that the key quality markers for a video conference were the number of times a call failed and had to be re-established, absent or delayed audio or video (jitter), and significant pixilation of the video. Using database software specifically developed to record the observations of the number and durations of negative events, each individual event (jitter and/or pixilation) observed was assigned with a start and end time. Failed calls were also counted. A failed call was a call that was unexpectedly terminated and included calls that were unable to complete a connection. While the results can be considered subjective, the same ICT staff member conducted all tests to minimize variances in the evaluation process.
Most noticeable were the high variability of the upload (SD 0.61) and download (SD 0.56) rates, which in some cases, when signal powers were low, could reduce the minimum bitrates to values which could limit video and audio quality. At low power levels the average network latency rose to 96ms which may reduce the audio quality.
The majority of the testing was undertaken when signal power was moderate but many instances of weak signal power were observed. Visual examination of 37 hours of experimental recordings of Telstra 3G signal power and events such as network packet \"Ping\" delay and/or audio and video jitter showed no time correlation between signal power and other events (Figure 4).
A comparison of the mean number of adverse events during each video conferencing session for each test combination shows the best performance was achieved by an iPad tablet via WiFi and NBN (Figure 5). While the rank order may change depending on the parameter chosen to rank each scenario (video and audio jitter or video pixilation events), the NBN-based scenario was always the best.
Across all test combinations, with the exception of those involving the NBN, the duration of the video, audio pixilation, and video jitter events varied from about 5 to 45 seconds with mean values between 15 and 20 seconds. Failed call events were of particular interest because these caused significant issues to telehealth sessions. Only one failed call was observed on the NBN. For the principal configuration deployed in the FTH trial (an iPad connected via Telstra 3G), 4 calls failed during 21 sessions lasting 45 minutes each. Differences between the performance of the iPad, Samsung Tab, and Android FonePad devices were observed for similar connections.
Clinicians rated the effectiveness of conducting a session using telehealth compared with a home visit as equivalent or better 88.5% (478/540) of the time. A statistically significant association existed between audio quality and the effectiveness of conducting a session compared to a home visit using telehealth (P
The main findings of this study are that the effectiveness and experience of home telehealth was judged by clinicians as equivalent to or better than a home visit and that the quality of video conferencing using 3G-based mobile data services in comparison to broadband FTTP services is less, due to failed calls during successful telehealth sessions, audio, video jitter, and video pixilation. However, clinicians were still able to deliver effective services to patients at home using this less than perfect technology.
Experimental field tests demonstrated significantly better performance of video conferencing over the NBN FTTP network, which provided an almost error-free performance for audio and video and no failed calls, whereas a greater proportion of adverse audio and video events were observed when using Telstra 3G mobile data connections. Recent work  has also reported that participants connected via 4G mobile data services experience more audio and visual difficulties than participants on the NBN. Earlier work  reported similar problems with 3G connectivity in areas of poor signal strength. Since NBN rollout has been slow and patchy, current (and likely future) telehealth services will continue to rely on 3G/4G mobile services. One recent study of videoconferencing over 4G networks found that 4G networks were an appropriate technology to deliver real-time video consultations; but due to known variability in performance of 4G networks, these (networks) should be evaluated prior to establishing a telemedicine service . Other work has highlighted the value of understanding the actual mobile data coverage in urban New York in order to provide reliable services based on text messaging . Laboratory-based tests discuss the performance of video conferencing used in emergency medical dispatch situations and report that video transmissions over a 3G network to a mobile phone froze for short periods during 21% of calls, which is consistent with our results [10,11]. Further research is required to determine if higher levels of reliability can be obtained using 4G services. 59ce067264